North of the main
ridge valleys and lower mountain slopes (1900 - 2300m) are covered
with pine forests mingled with birch and mountain ash. Vegetation
here clearly indicates lines of old avalanches - these are marked by
deciduous forests of birch, mountain ash, aspen and others. Between
2300 and 3000m the forests have been replaced by alpine meadows rich
in flowers. Closer to the edges of glaciers and snowfields snowdrops
bloom and colourful lichens cover stones free from snow.
In the Transcaucasus, south of the main ridge, up to 1600m, one may
find beech, hornbeam, maple, linden and ash forests. Higher still,
up to 2100m, fir tree forests are found and above these alpine
meadows with a wide variety of flowers often not found on the
northern side of the ridge.