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About | Mountains | Glaciers | Rivers | Lakes

Eastern Caucasus

Range TypeGeographically-defined sub-range
Highest Point Gora Tebulosmta (4494 m/14,744 ft)
CountriesRussia (75%), Azerbaijan (18%), Georgia (7%)
(numbers are approxmiate percentage of range area)
States/ProvincesKalmykia (30%), Dagestan (21%), Astrakhan†(10%), Chechnya (7%), Rostov (2%), Ingushetia (2%), Alania (1%), Stavropol (1%), Volgograd (1%)
(numbers are approxmiate percentage of range area)
Area228,845 sq km / 88,357 sq mi
Area may include lowland areas
Extent1,040 km / 646 mi North-South
598 km / 372 mi East-West
Center Lat/Long 44 0' N; 46 38' E
Map LinksMSN MapPoint Map
Ten Highest Peaks
RankPeak NamemftRange4
1. Gora Tebulosmta449414,744 
2. Bazar Dyuzi446614,652 
3. Shan445114,603 
4. Diklos-mta428514,058 
5. Babadag362911,906 
Sub-peaks are excluded from this list.

Mountains of Dagestan
East Caucasus is extended on 500 km to the east from Kazbek up to Caspian sea. It consists of following allocated parts: Azerbaijan mountains, Dagestan mountains, Checheno-Tushetskie mountains and Ingusheto-Hevsuretskie mountains. Massif Erydag (3925 m), located in the Dagestan mountains is especially popular. There is a set of difficult rocky routes of 5B-6A grade.

Mountains of Azerbaijan
The nature of Azerbaijan is characterized by contrast of the relief towering on small distance (40-60 km) from 28 m lower than a level of World ocean (Near-Caspian lowland) up to 4466 m of absolute heights (Mt. Bazarduyzuy).

Mt. Kazbek region is situated in Eastern part of Central Caucasus, on Georgia territory, near to Georgian Military highway, Kazbegi village (1700 m ). This mountain region is almost independent from other mountain chain. Kazbek is volcano 5033 m high. First climbed in 1868 under the leadership of D. Freshfild.
There is wonderful Gergeti Monastery, standing on the cliff, which of the way coming to the foot of Mt. Kazbek begins from. It is beauty view through it with Kazbek on the back front.

Mount Kazbek is an extinct volcano located in the eastern part of Central Caucasus.

GEOGRAPHICAL OVERVIEW

Eastern Caucasus stretches  on 480 km from Kazbek to the West till Apsheronsky  peninsula. It conventionally can be divided into four regions.

Ingusheto-Hevsuretsky mountains are made up  by solid dia-bases, porfirits, loamy and crystal schists expending on 50  km to the East from the Uppers Terek and Belaya Aragva.  Here the trekkers and mountaineers popular Khuro and Shavana ridges with complicate by technique ridges and mountain-mass Chauhy are situated.

Checheno-Tushetsky mountains stretches from Chantiarguna and Hevsuretsky Aragva sources on 660 km to the East. The mountain sink opened to the river Andinskoe Khoysu table. Great Caucasus Range  is formed here by loamy schists which is completed by sandstones,  profirits and dia-bases.

Dagestansky mountains expends on other 220 km. Loamy schists form this region.  Dolomits and limestones come up on the surface to the North and East of Great Caucasus Range in Dagestan mountains.

Azerbayjan mountains expends on 150 km to the East to Caspian Sea. Region swelling rocks loamy schists,  limestones, clays.  Eastern Caucasus is lower Central, most of its peaks are higher 4000 m. The Tebulosmt  mountain (4493 m )  - is the highest region peak. Eastern Caucasus ridges are mainly made up of  soft rocks  easy to destroy by wash-out and by weathering, that form typical landscapes with labyrinths of rutted ridges and deep gorges. Muddy, violent with deep canyons rivers run through mountains.

In Eastern Caucasus the snow-line altitude begins  from 3700-3800 m, its higher than in Western, and 300-400 m higher than in Central Caucasus.

Despite of Western Caucasus higher ridges and peaks altitudes, the quantity of glaciers is less than in Eastern. Usually  glaciers are on the highest mountain-masses, moreover on its northern side. In Eastern Caucasus the ice-covering square is 114.4 sq. km . and 1 sq. km. for its northern and southern slopes. The most of glaciers are ravine and valley.

CLIMATE

In the Eastern Caucasus, the weather is drier than in the Western and Central ranges, and the mountains form isolated massifs, rather than glaciated chains. At the far eastern end, semi-desert conditions prevail as the range approaches the Caspian Sea. The mountains rise out of barren foothills and are generally lower and less dramatic than their Central Caucasus neighbors. There are very few glaciers.

 

The climate of Eastern Caucasus is considerably drier than Western and Central Caucasus climate. Precipitations  are namely 1000-1250 mm per year in Eastern Caucasus highlands, on the southern slope of Great Caucasus Range and in mountains of Dagestan 400-600 mm per year. It is caused by condensers present that are obstacles to saturated by moisture air streams from Black Sea.  First of all these are Kazbek and the Eastern Caucasus  highest peak Tebulosmt. Air streams give a large quantity of foggy days in Hevrusetiya  and promote to arising of frequent summer storms with groats or hail by on gusty winds with hurricane force.

The next altitude condensator-barrier powerful Bogotsky ridge. Here moist streams of Black Sea air finish their way to the East. Coming down on the ridge they give a large number of storms, hails, snowy storms.

Summer is hot everywhere in Eastern Caucasus , and winter is rather soft, but unstable on the northern side and usually stable warm on its southern side. Spring is colder than autumn in mountains. In May rivers begin to fill by melted snow water, and this is the time for travelling on tourist vessels. And for the cyclist-tourists, pedestrians, and especially for trekkers even June is not a good time for travelling.

In Eastern Caucasus autumn begins at the end of August. This is the most safety (in the meaning of foul weather) sunny period for travelling in local mountains. Often September and the first part of October are just the most cloudless, the driest and the warmest.

For tourism Eastern Caucasus possibilities are very broad. Of any complication category treks can be organized on about 20 the highest complication category passes and on a number of more simple.

In the Eastern Caucasus, the weather is drier than in the Western and Central ranges, and the mountains form isolated massifs, rather than glaciated chains. At the far eastern end, semi-desert conditions prevail as the range approaches the Caspian Sea. The mountains rise out of barren foothills and are generally lower and less dramatic than their Central Caucasus neighbors.

The highest peak of the Eastern Caucasus is Tebulos-Mta (14,744 ft./4494 m). 


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